Operators are symbols used in mathematical and logical expressions to evaluate complex operations. They operate on operands, which can be variables, constants, or expressions.

### Types of Operators

#### 1. Arithmetic Operators

- + Addition: Adds two operands.

- - Subtraction: Subtracts the right operand from the left.

- * Multiplication: Multiplies two operands.

- / Division: Divides the left operand by the right.

- % Modulus (Remainder): Returns the remainder of division.

#### 2. Assignment Operators

- = Assign: Assigns the value of the right operand to the left.

- += Add and assign: Adds the right operand to the left and assigns the result.

- -= Subtract and assign: Subtracts the right operand from the left and assigns the result.

- *= Multiply and assign: Multiplies the left by the right and assigns the result.

- /= Divide and assign: Divides the left by the right and assigns the result.

- %= Modulus and assign: Calculates modulus and assigns the result.

#### 3. Relational Operators

- > Greater than: Checks if the left operand is greater than the right.

- < Less than: Checks if the left operand is less than the right.

- >= Greater than or equal to: Checks if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right.

- <= Less than or equal to: Checks if the left operand is less than or equal to the right.

- == Equal to: Checks if operands are equal.

- != Not equal to: Checks if operands are not equal.

#### 4. Conditional Operator

- ?: Ternary operator (conditional expression): Evaluates a condition and returns one of two values based on that condition.

#### 5. Logical Operators

- && Logical AND: Returns true if both operands are true.

- || Logical OR: Returns true if either operand is true.

- ! Logical NOT: Returns true if the operand is false and vice versa.

#### 6. Increment/Decrement Operators

- ++ Increment: Increases the value of the operand by 1.

- -- Decrement: Decreases the value of the operand by 1.

#### 7. Bitwise Operators

- << Left shift: Shifts bits of the left operand to the left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

- >> Right shift: Shifts bits of the left operand to the right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

Understanding and mastering these operators is fundamental to programming in various languages and for performing diverse computational tasks.

### Operator Precedence

In programming languages, operators are evaluated based on their precedence, which defines the order in which they are executed within an expression. Understanding operator precedence helps ensure that expressions are evaluated correctly. Here's a breakdown of common precedence rules:

#### - Parentheses ():

Parentheses have the highest precedence and are used to override the default precedence of operators. Expressions within parentheses are evaluated first.

#### - Arithmetic Operators:

Arithmetic operators like addition +, subtraction -, multiplication *, division /, and modulus % are evaluated next. They follow the rules of mathematical operations.

#### - Relational Operators:

Relational operators such as greater than >, less than <, greater than or equal to >=, less than or equal to <=, equality ==, and inequality != are evaluated after arithmetic operations. They compare values and return boolean results.

#### - Logical Operators:

Logical operators like logical AND &&, logical OR ||, and logical NOT ! are evaluated next. They are used to combine and manipulate boolean values.

#### - Assignment Operators:

Assignment operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=) are evaluated next. They assign values to variables and can also perform arithmetic operations in conjunction with assignment.

#### - Ternary Operator:

The ternary operator ?:, being a conditional operator, is evaluated next. It provides a concise way to express conditional expressions.

#### - Increment/Decrement Operators:

Increment ++ and decrement -- operators, both pre and post versions, have their precedence.

#### - Bitwise Operators:

Bitwise operators (<<, >>, &, |, ^, ~) are evaluated last. They manipulate individual bits within integer operands.

### Forms of Operators

#### 1. Unary Operators:

These operators act on a single operand. Examples include increment ++, decrement --, sizeof, unary plus +, unary minus -, and dereference *. They are often used for incrementing/decrementing values or manipulating memory addresses.

#### 2. Binary Operators:

Binary operators require two operands. They include arithmetic operators like addition +, subtraction -, multiplication *, division /, and modulus %, among others. Binary operators are fundamental for performing arithmetic and logical operations.

#### 3. Ternary Operator:

The ternary operator ?: is unique as it takes three operands and is used for conditional expressions. It evaluates a condition and returns one of two possible values based on the result of the condition.

Mastering these operator forms and their precedence is essential for writing efficient and error-free code in programming languages. By leveraging operators effectively, developers can express complex logic and perform various computations efficiently.

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